Black grape variety; cross-bred by the South African viticulturist A. I. Perold in 1925, using Pinot Noir and Cinsaut. During the 1970's the old bush-vines that existed were considered problematic to cultivate due to their low resistance to disease and low yields, consequently its popularity decreased. However these days younger more fruitful vines are cultivated and when planted in an appropriate location the grapes are intensely coloured with good acid. Advanced viticulture and winemaking is now employed, such as the use of cooler and longer fermentations - which enhances varietal aromas, and the careful use of oak. Pinotage can also be found in Brazil, California, New Zealand, and Zimbabwe.